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Gulf Stream

A warm ocean current that flows out of the Gulf of Mexico, and continues up along the east coast of North America before turning into the Atlantic.


Average weather over a time period, usually 30 years.


Soil or rock frozen for a period of at least two years.


Variety of animals, plants and other forms of life.

Arctic shrinkage

A decrease in the amount of Arctic sea ice and the melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet.


Living and recently dead biological material. In the context of climate change it often refers to these materials when used as fuel or for industrial production of energy.


The sum of and interaction between all living beings.

Carbon credit

A way for industries to compensate for a failure to keep below their emission limits and for those who do better than their limits to benefit by selling their unused quotas to others.

Carbon cycle

The movement of carbon through biological, atmospheric, chemical and geological systems.